The Physical Thermodynamics sector contributes to the realization of the redefined kelvin and it is active in the development of primary standards based on innovative acoustic, optical, microwave and radiometry methods. The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) is maintained by the realization of thermometric fixed points and disseminated for contact thermometry between 4 K and 1235 K and by radiometry techniques up to 2000 °C. Primary humidity standards are developed to disseminate the frost- and dew-point temperature scale between -100 °C e 95 °C over a wide pressure range. Relative humidity and air temperature calibration standards are also developed. Measurement methods are developed for thermophysical properties of gaseous and liquid fluids having a relevant scientific interest. The grown up proficiency in the fields of temperature metrology and hygrometry are spent, in the framework of national and international research projects, for the solution of scientific and technological problems over a wide spectrum of applications, with emphasis on environmental and societal challenges, including energy saving. Metrological expertise and resources are available to users by provision of calibration services, partnerships, and consultancies on specific topics.