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Il Tempo della Scienza

Seminari tecnici 2014

Sala Conferenze (Edificio M)
Strada delle Cacce 91, Torino

Data Titolo Relatore
20 gennaio
ore 10
Partecipazione INRIM al confronto 'Supplementary Comparison EURAMET.EM-S32'
"Comparison of resistance standards at 1 TΩ and 100 TΩ":
sistemi di misura INRIM, analisi dei dati e interazioni con il Laboratorio pilota


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Nel 2009 l'INRIM ha partecipato al confronto di misura EURAMET.EM-S32 di elevatissime resistenze a livello 1 TΩ e 100 TΩ a cui hanno partecipato 18 Istituti Metrologici Europei. Vengono descritti i sistemi ed incertezze di misura INRIM, l'analisi dei risultati per il trattamento di dati provenienti da più campioni di pari valor nominale. Viene sintetizzata l'interazione tra l'INRIM ed il METAS per la definizione dell'esito definitivo del confronto.
Flavio Galliana e Pier Paolo Capra
22 gennaio
ore 11
Cold atoms experiments at University of São Paulo:
from quantum turbulence to compact atomic clocks
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We shall discuss the experiments and results using cold atoms to prepare BEC, to investigate quantum turbulence and to produce atomic clocks. In special, the compact clock, using an expanding cloud of cold atoms will be discussed.
Vanderlei Salvador Bagnato
Instituto de FĂ­sica de São Carlos
Universidade de São Paulo
3 febbraio
ore 14
Photonic States Manipulation in Atomic Ensembles
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Quantum information processing requires efficient encoding, manipulation and storage of quantum states. Photons are excellent carriers of quantum information, since they travel fast without being affected by external disturbances. On the other hand, cold atomic ensembles are a very versatile tool to store, manipulate and retrieve quantum states of light. In the past decade, they have been extensively used to store and retrieve photonic states by using either the so called Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) protocol, or the DLCZ protocol, where the detection of a Raman photon triggers the creation of a collective atomic excitation in a lambda-medium. The shared excitation can be reconverted later into a single photon leaving the ensemble. The process has been extensively investigated in the photon counting regime showing the non-classical character of the emerging photonic state. Only very recently the photonic states leaving the atomic ensemble have been characterized by quantum homodyne tomography. The state is hence completely described in the continuous variables picture by the reconstructed Wigner function giving complete information on a welldefined spatial-temporal mode.
Atomic ensembles can be also used for manipulating photonic states by atomic interactions and they are promising candidates to reach strong-nonlinearities at the single-photon level. Photonic states can be converted into strongly interacting particles, like collective excitations involving Rydberg atoms. Interactions between Rydbergs in fact lead to a "blockade" phenomenon, where each Rydberg atom blocks the excitation of its neighbors, which can result in strong nonlinearities.
Valentina Parigi
Laboratoire Kastler Brossel
Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Ecole Normale Supérieure, CNRS, Paris
12 febbraio
ore 9:30
ed.D p.1
Including disorder in micromagnetic simulations: the road to imperfection
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In this seminar you will see how material imperfections can be included in micromagnetic simulations. Understanding domain wall motion in magnetic nanowires is of paramount importance for the development of future spintronics devices and simulations are a powerful tool to investigate this motion. However, more often than not the effects of material imperfections are not taken into account in these simulations.
A method will be shown to characterize simulated defects and its application to find 2 possible implementations that give rise to defects with properties that correspond to experimental values. The effects of this disorder on current driven vortex domain wall motion will illustrate why disorder should be taken into account. Furthermore, as there is a suspected link between the experimentally measured disorder and the grains in material samples. A computationally efficient way of simulating polycrystalline materials using voronoi cells will also be presented.
Jonathan Leliaert
University of Ghent
12 febbraio
ore 14:30
Astroparticle physics in space
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Roberto Battiston
Università di Trento
Dipartimento di Fisica
19 febbraio
ore 11
Optical Lattice Clocks and Applications
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Research on optical frequency standards based on cold atoms or ions has shown a great advance in the last few years. Among others, alkaline-earth atoms trapped in an optical lattice have demonstrated unprecedented stability. Recently a strontium lattice clock demonstrated an uncertainty of 6e-18, the best in frequency standards up to date. The stability and accuracy of optical frequency standards will benefit many applications and innovations, such as realization and dissemination of units in the Système International (SI), quantum simulations, relativistic geodesy, test of fundamental constants variation and tests of fundamental physics.
In the talk I will describe the development of an optical lattice clock based on ytterbium atoms and the perspective for the near future. Comparison with other clocks is planned, both local and remote, that will allow a proof-of-principle relativistic geodesy experiment. In addition, remote comparison with a quantum degenerate ytterbium gas experiment developed in Florence will be useful for studies of collisional physics and quantum simulations.
Marco Pizzocaro
26 febbraio
ore 15:30
Un'infrastruttura in fibra ottica per la disseminazione di frequenza a 5e-19 su scala nazionale ed europea

A fiber optical link for frequency dissemination at 5e-19 on a European scale
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Currently, time and frequency dissemination is performed with satellite microwave links. These techniques strongly limit the comparison of remote primary frequency standards, and are completely inadequate for the comparison of optical clocks. In recent years, an alternative method based on optical fiber has been developed, which improves the resolution by 5 orders of magnitude. This is not only beneficial in time and frequency metrology, but paves the way for new opportunities in fundamental physics, geodesy and radioastronomy as well.
INRIM has developed a 642 km optical link with the European Laboratory for Non Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) in Firenze. This backbone has enabled absolute spectroscopic measurements between the two laboratories and will be upgraded to connect other research centres in Italy ( Medicina (Bologna) Radio-telescopes, National Institute of Optics in Firenze, National Council of Research in Milano) and in Europe. I will describe the optical link, the fiber-based remote comparison of atomic clocks, and the future applications.
Cecilia Clivati
27 marzo
ore 9
ed.A p.2
Comparison of non-classicality and Decoherence between photon added and photon subtracted squeezed coherent state
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Non-classicality in a state of light is a valuable resource for quantum information processing. Non-classicality is manifested by certain criteria such as sub-Poissonian distribution of photon numbers, oscillation in the photon number distribution and negativity of the Wigner function. Employing the technique of Integration within an Ordered Product (IWOP), I have calculated and compared the non-classicality of photon added and photon subtracted squeezed coherent states. I have found that photon addition generates more non-classicality in a squeezed coherent state than photon subtraction. Decoherence of such states in amplitude and phase damping channel has also been analysed in this work. How the photon number distribution will change under the influence of Decoherence will also be discussed.
Nigam Samantaray
11 aprile
ore 11
ed.D p.1
Dai vulcani siciliani ai villaggi neolitici piemontesi. Il viaggio dell'ossidiana attraverso lo studio delle sue proprietà magnetiche
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In questo lavoro, si à posta attenzione ad alcuni parametri sperimentali per distinguere le diverse distribuzioni e dimensioni dei granuli magnetici (ossidi di ferro: magnetite, titano-magnetite) nei principali giacimenti di ossidiana del Mediterraneo. La potenzialità del metodo per tracciare la provenienza di manufatti in ossidiana di interesse archeologico è stata valutata confrontando campioni geologici di cinque isole (Lipari, Monte Arci – Sardegna, Palmarola, Pantelleria, Melos) con i campioni costitutivi di una collezione di lamelle provenienti dal sito neolitico di Castello d'Annone, in provincia di Asti (22 campioni). Sono state misurate: la suscettività magnetica iniziale x, la suscettività anisteretica xa e la magnetizzazione rimanente (IRM) a T = 293 K (IRM293) e 77 K (IRM77). Sono state inoltre analizzate le forme dei cicli di isteresi, sia a T = 293 K sia a T = 77 K. Lo studio dei parametri magnetici ricavabili da queste misure permette una stima della distribuzione dei granuli ferrosi presenti nell'ossidiana, distinguendone il contenuto in superparamagnetici (SP), singolo dominio (SD), pseudo singolo dominio (PSD) e multidominio (MD). L'indicazione di provenienza ricavata dalle misure conferma le ipotesi già avanzate dagli studi archeologici nell'Italia nord-occidentale sull'esistenza nel Neolitico di una via di commercio con Lipari e la Sicilia, oltre a quella con la Sardegna, consolidata e favorita dalla vicinanza.
Elena Pavesio
Università di Torino
14 aprile
ore 12
Control of Quantum Sensors
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The success of quantum-enhanced sensors relies on precise control of the experimental systems to protect them from undesired sources of noise. Unfortunately, simple application of known strategies to reduce decoherence does not necessarily translate into an improvement of phase measurements: techniques such as dynamical decoupling that eliminate decoherence also eliminate the very signal that one wishes to measure.
In this talk I will show how to extend control techniques to quantum metrology tasks, achieving a better and more flexible compromise between sensitivity and noise protection. In addition, tailoring the sensor dynamic can help reveal temporal and spatial information about the target. We can for example use coherent control of quantum sensors to simultaneously reconstruct the arbitrary profile of time­varying fields and correct for unwanted noise sources; or we can achieve high frequency resolution, thus allowing precise spectroscopy.
I will illustrate applications of these strategies in experimental implementations based on the Nitrogen­Vacancy center in diamond.
Paola Cappellaro
Nuclear Science and Engineering Department
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
15 aprile
ore 11
Atomic Frequency Standards in Brazil - Research and ongoing applications
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In the recent years, using atomic transitions have become more and more frequent in the definition of reference standards. The measurement capability reached by microwave and optical frequency standards plays a fundamental role on these definitions. Our research group has been establishing experiments in some of the several kinds of atomic standards, and the goal of this presentation is to present the state of the art in our laboratories. The results concern the 133Cs atomic fountain, the 133Cs compact clock, the experiment with 88Sr, the structure under development for time and frequency scientific metrology and applications in course for the use of such accurate and stable references.
Daniel Varela Magalhaes
São Carlos School of Engineering
University of São Paulo, Brazil
11 giugno
ore 10:30
Superconducting nanowires for single-photon detection
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Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) is an emergent technology which is rapidly achieving unprecedented performances: single photon sensitivity in the 0.5–3.0 micron range with detection efficiency above 90%, dark count rate below 1 kHz, dead time of a few nanoseconds, and timing jitter as low as 20 ps. Photon number resolving is also possible and very recently counting capability up to 12 photons has been demonstrated. These characteristics are attractive for quantum technologies and high sensitivity long-distance communications, as well as for atmospheric remote sensing and biological/medical sensing of ultra weak photon sources. As is often the case in applied nanotechnology, it is a challenge to make devices that match with the macroscopic dimensions of the available light sources (laser spots, etc). Both the fast temporal response and the device sensitivity is generally degraded when the SNSPD active area is increased.
Here, a general overview of SNSPD will be given and our recent results will be presented on novel SNSPD configurations for scaling up to macroscopic dimensions without losing the performance of the active elements, thus enabling practical use of this nanotechnology. Presently NbN is the material of choice for SNSPD. Results on alternative materials (WSi, YBCO) will be also presented.
Roberto Cristiano
Istituto Superconduttori, Materiali innovativi e dispositivi (SPIN) del CNR, Pozzuoli (Napoli)
11 giugno
ore 15
Acustica subacquea: stato delle conoscenze e prospettive applicative
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L'esplorazione dell'ambiente marino, in primo luogo di quello profondo, rappresenta una delle ultime grandi sfide. L'ostilità di questo ambiente all'uomo e l'impossibilità di ricorrere alle onde elettromagnetiche impongono l'uso della propagazione acustica. Nei suoi cento anni di storia l'acustica subacquea si è sviluppata a partire dall'esigenza di essere di ausilio alla navigazione oceanica, ricevendo un enorme impulso nel periodo bellico e post-bellico con la lotta antisommergibili, fino ad interessare al giorno d'oggi quasi ogni ambito applicativo delle scienze e tecnologie marine.
Il seminario presenta alcuni casi di studio tra i piĂą significativi con una descrizione dello stato dell'arte e delle attuali prospettive di sviluppo, con particolare attenzione al tema della metrologia.
Silvano Buogo
Istituto di Acustica e Sensoristica "O. M. Corbino" del CNR
15 luglio
ore 15:30
ed.D p.1
Opto-Electronic Properties of Bismuth Oxide Thin Films and Applications
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Bismuth oxide Bi2O3 has interesting technological applications, which have not been largely explored due to the particular polymorphism of the material. Among the interesting properties, it is worth mentioning a large energy gap (from 2 to 3.96 eV depending on the phase), high refractive index, dielectric permittivity, noticeable photoconductivity and photoluminescence. Moreover, one of its phases presents the highest ionic conductivity. Bismuth Oxide has five polymorphic forms: α, β, γ, δ and ω-Bi2O3. Among them, the low-temperature α and the high-temperature γ phases are stable and the others are metastable. The face-centered cubic δ-Bi2O3 is stable over a narrow range 729–825oC (melting point) and it is the high ionic conductivity phase. Remarkably, it has been proved that the deposition of nanocrystalline thin films allows the stabilization of the high temperature phase (δ) at room temperature. In order to study deeply the properties and therefore possible applications of Bismuth oxide thin films for the energy and environmental areas, Bismuth oxide thin films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering from a Bi2O3 target (99.95 at%) using radio frequency and an Ar/O2 atmosphere (80/20). The films were deposited on silicon and glass substrates as a function of the power (PW: 100-200 W) and the substrate temperature (Ts: 125-250oC). The films were characterized in terms of the structural identification by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, the elemental composition by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the optical properties were determined by spectroscopy ellipsometry and the electrical resistivity by analyzing the current-voltage curves measured using two-concentrically circular Pt electrodes deposited on the surface.
The results indicated that stoichiometric Bi2O3 films were obtained but according to the Ts and PW, the crystalline structure changed from the delta-phase, at the lowest energetic conditions, to beta and alpha as the substrate temperature or power increased. Micro Raman showed that under energetic conditions, the films were not spatially uniform; presenting phase differences (α and β). The electrical measurements of the as-deposited films (on glass) showed the response of a highly electrical resistance material.
In this presentation, the evaluations of the Bismuth oxide thin films for two possible energetic and environmental applications are presented. Firstly, we explore the photocatalytic response of the films studying the degradation of color dyes (methyl orange) under different conditions of illumination, agitation and pH. The preliminary results indicated a response comparable to the well-known TiO2 photocatalytic material. Secondly, the δ-phase films were stabilized up to 500oC by the addition of Ta ions opening the possibility of using them as the electrolyte layer for micro solid oxide fuel cells.

Acknowledgements: This research received funding from the European Community Seven Framework Programme (FP7-NMP-2010-EU-MEXICO) and CONACYT under grant agreements n. 263878 and 125141, respectively.
Sandra E. Rodil
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
21 luglio
ore 17
Nanoscienza e nanotecnologia al NEST
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Nanotechnology is moving fast towards becoming a trillion dollar market, as predicted by the National Science Foundation back in 2000 for year 2015. This large figure is the result of the pervasive impact of nanotechnology in many different fields notably nanomaterials, but above all in the pharmaceutical and biomedical sectors.
In this talk I shall present some of the recent activities at NEST, the National Enterprise for nanoScience and nanoTechnology both in the context of nanostructured materials and devices for ICT and in the biomedical sectors. I shall also discuss the role of standardization and certification of nanoprocesses to ensure the exploitation to the full potential of these novel methodologies.
Fabio Beltram
Scuola Normale Superiore, Laboratorio NEST
22 luglio
ore 11
A classic never gets old
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The Einstein relation between stimulated emission, many aspects of which can be understood classically, and spontaneous emission, which it is generally agreed cannot be understood classically, can be seen as the origin of quantum optics. In this talk we show that similar relations can be found in nonlinear optics, starting with the generation of photon pairs by parametric fluorescence. This offers a new perspective on the physics unifying classical and quantum integrated optics.
Marco Liscidini
Università degli Studi di Pavia
28 luglio
ore 11
Cross-Spectrum Measurement of PM Noise in the Presence of AM Noise
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We measure the PM noise of an oscillator by comparing it with two independent references (synthesisers), and by using two separate phase meters (mixers). The cross spectrum method enables the rejection of the background noise, and provides enhanced sensitivity. However, AM noise can result in serious under-estimation of the DUT noise, which is of course embarrassing.
Let us denote with c(t) the physical quantity to be measured (oscillator PM noise), with a(t) and b(t) the background of the two instruments, and with x(t) = c(t)+a(t) and y(t) = c(t)+b(t) the signals available at the instrument outputs. Assuming that the process are stationary and ergodic (the physical experiment is repeatable and reproducible) and that the two instruments are independent, the average correlation of x and y gives the statistical properties of c(t). The single-channel noise is rejected proportionally to the square root of the number m of averages, and ultimately to the square root of the measurement time.
A major problem has been discovered recently, that the oscillator AM noise results in cor- related noise at the two outputs x(t) and y(t), and ultimately in a systematic error in the measurement of the oscillator PM noise. The eect of AM noise can be either correlated or anti-correlated. In the latter case, the DUT noise is under-estimated.
We will review the cross spectrum method, and discuss the eect of AM noise.
Enrico Rubiola
FEMTO-ST Institute, Dept. Time and Frequency
CNRS / École Nationale Supérieure de Mécanique et des Microtechniques (ENSMM) / Université de Franche-Comté (UFC), Besançon, France
8 settembre
ore 16
Research activity for humidity standards at NMIJ: Development of trace-moisture standard Hisashi Abe
National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ)
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)
30 settembre
ore 14:30
Long-range paired Kitaev chains
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I discuss a generalization of the Kitaev Ising chain with long-range paring term, both with periodic and open boundary conditions. The model is exactly solvable in terms of Bogoliubov excitations. It is possible to identify a standard regime where the system behaves similarly to the usual Ising spin chainand an exotic long-range regime where the correlation functions are power-law decayingalso in presence of a non vanishing mass gap, the area law for the Von-Neumann entropy is violated and the velocity of the excitations is diverging.
I also discuss the evolution of Majorana edge states decreasing the power-law exponent of the pairing. At the end I comment shortly on the effects by a long-range hopping term.
Luca Lepori
Université de Strasbourg, France
27 ottobre
ore 11:30
Deterministic Generation of Multiparticle Entanglement by Quantum Zeno Dynamics
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Multiparticle entangled quantum states, required as a resource in quantum-enhanced metrology and quantum computing, are usually generated by unitary operations exclusively, while carefully shielding the system from any coupling to the environment. Recent developments in quantum technology show that powerful new forms of quantum dynamics can be obtained when this dichotomy is abandoned and environment coupling is used as part of the state generation. In this context we experimentally demonstrate the use of Quantum Zeno Dynamics, based on non-destructive measurement with a high-finesse optical cavity, to deterministically generate different multiparticle entangled states in an ensemble of 36 qubit atoms. We perform quantum state tomography of the resulting state, we compare it to the separable state that is observed without the simultaneous measurement, and quantify its depth of entanglement. We also measure the properties of the entangled state as a function of the strength of the measurement. These results show that QZD can be used as a versatile tool for fast and deterministic entanglement generation for quantum engineering and quantum metrology applications.
I also discuss the evolution of Majorana edge states decreasing the power-law exponent of the pairing. At the end I comment shortly on the effects by a long-range hopping term.
Giovanni Barontini
Laboratoire Kastler-Brossel, ENS CNRS
4 novembre
ore 14:30
Time-fluctuations in out-of-equilibrium closed quantum systems
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Out of equilibrium quantum systems, on top of quantum fluctuations, display complex temporal patterns. In this talk the theory of such temporal fluctuations will be presented. We will show that a wealth of precious information is encoded in the temporal fluctuations, such as the ability to detect integrability, criticality and to characterize atomic condensates. In the typical case time fluctuations are exponentially small in the system volume and can be therefore safely ignored. This result does not hold for integrable systems and at criticality and these cases will be considered in detail. For integrable systems we show that temporal fluctuations will be Gaussian. In this case the relative fluctuations decay in the volume with the familiar 1/sqrt(V) law as opposed to exponentially. This is a precise characterization of the common folklore according to which integrable systems equilibrate poorly.
The critical scenario will be analyzed in the context of the so called quench experiment where a perturbation is applied suddenly. In the limit of small quench, time fluctuations become stronger than other forms of equilibrium quantum fluctuations if the quench is performed close to a critical point. For sufficiently relevant operators the full distribution function of dynamically evolving observable expectation values, becomes a universal function uniquely characterized by a single critical exponent and the boundary conditions. This shows that critical temporal fluctuations are even more universal than equilibrium ones. Applications of these findings to atomic gases trapped in optical lattices will be discussed.
Lorenzo Campos Venuti
Department of Physics and Astronomy
Center for Quantum Information Science & Technology,
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA
24 novembre
ore 11
Superconducting-based coherent caloritronics
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The Josephson effect [1] represents perhaps the prototype of macroscopic phase coherence and is at the basis of the most widespread interferometer, i.e., the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). Yet, in analogy to electric interference, Maki and Griffin [2] predicted in 1965 that thermal current flowing through a temperature-biased Josephson tunnel junction is a stationary periodic function of the quantum phase difference between the superconductors. In this scenario, a temperature-biased SQUID would allow heat currents to interfere thus implementing the thermal version of the electric Josephson interferometer.
In this talk I shall initially report the first experimental realization of a heat interferometer [3]. We investigate heat exchange between two normal metal electrodes kept at different temperatures and tunnel-coupled to each other through a thermal `modulator’ in the form of a DC-SQUID. Heat transport in the system is found to be phase dependent, in agreement with the original prediction. Next, I will present experimental results on the first quantum `diffractor’ for thermal flux [4, 5]. Specifically, thermal diffraction manifests itself with a peculiar modulation of the electron temperature in a small metallic electrode nearby-contacted to a Josephson junction when sweeping the magnetic flux Φ [5]. The observed temperature dependence exhibits a clear reminiscence with a Fraunhofer-like modulation pattern, as expected fingerprint for a quantum diffraction phenomenon. Our results confirm a recent prediction of quantum heat transport and, joined with double-junction heat interferometry demonstrated in [3], exemplify the complementary proof of the existence of phase-dependent thermal currents in Josephson-coupled superconductors.
I shall conclude by showing the first realization of an ultra-efficient low-temperature hybrid 'heat current rectifier' [6, 7], thermal counterpart of the well-known electric diode. Our design is based on a tunnel junction between two different elements: a normal metal and a superconducting island. Electronic heat current asymmetry in the structure arises from large mismatch between the thermal properties of these two. We demonstrate temperature differences exceeding 60 mK between the forward and reverse thermal bias configurations [8]. This device offers a remarkably large heat rectification ratio up to about 140 and allows its prompt implementation in true solid-state thermal nanocircuits and general-purpose electronic applications requiring energy harvesting or thermal management and isolation at the nanoscale. This approach combined with well-known methods for phase-biasing superconducting circuits provides with a novel tool for mastering heat fluxes at the nanoscale.

[1] B. D. Josephson, Phys. Lett. 1, 251 (1962)
[2] K. Maki and A. Griffin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 921 (1965)
[3] F. Giazotto and M. J. MartĂ­nez-PĂ©rez, Nature 492, 401 (2012)
[4] F. Giazotto, M. J. MartĂ­nez-PĂ©rez, and P. Solinas, Phys. Rev B 88, 094506 (2013)
[5] M. J. MartĂ­nez-PĂ©rez and F. Giazotto, Nat. Commun. 5, 3579 (2014).
[6] M. J. MartĂ­nez-PĂ©rez and F. Giazotto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 182602 (2013)
[7] F. Giazotto and F. S. Bergeret, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 242602 (2013)
[8] M. J. MartĂ­nez-PĂ©rez, A. Fornieri, and F. Giazotto, arXiv:1403.3052 (submitted, 2014)
Francesco Giazotto
NEST, Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR
Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa

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