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Il Tempo della Scienza

Seminari tecnici 2016

Sala Conferenze (Edificio M)
Strada delle Cacce 91, Torino

Data Relatore Titolo
4 maggio
ore 11
Ed. 7
Alessandro Balsamo

Riferibilità delle misurazioni a coordinate: principi adottati all'INRIM

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Le CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machines) sono strumenti flessibili e riprogrammabili, in grado di misurare qualsiasi geometria, anche molto complessa; questo ne costituisce il pregio principale. Dall'altra parte la garanzia della riferibilità è difficile da ottenere: ogni misurazione fa storia a sé. È storia complessa: per calcoli essenziali (ad esempio l'approssimazione di una circonferenza a partire dalle coordinate dei punti misurati) non sono disponibili formule chiuse ma solo algoritmi iterativi; le grandezze d'ingresso per il calcolo dell'incertezza sono alcune centinaia con significative correlazioni; il mal condizionamento numerico spesso intrinseco ad una misurazione amplifica l'influenza di alcune grandezze d'ingresso.
Nel seminario si affronteranno i principi generali che sono stati messi a punto all'INRIM, per garantire la riferibilità di categorie di tarature, basati essenzialmente sul confronto con opportuni campioni tarati di geometria più semplice.

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21 aprile
ore 11
Ed. D
Arash Hadadian
Politecnico di Torino

Energy harvesting based on magnetostrictive materials

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Energy harvesting is the conversion of energy present in the environment into electrical energy. It is identical in principle to large-scale renewable energy generation (e.g. solar, wind power, thermal), but very different in scale. In the last decades, many researches have been focused on sensor networks, especially with the help of new technologies like GPS, GSM and, in general, wireless communications. To make these systems autonomous a power supply is needed, but batteries require at least an annual maintenance and the periodic replacement makes such systems less autonomous. Energy harvesters, having a lifespan of 10 or 20 years, are an interesting alternative to batteries because they do not need human intervention and are environmentally friendly. During my speech three different type of harvesters will be discussed and analyzed.
20 aprile
ore 10:30
Ed. D
Davide Peddis
Istituto di Struttura della Materia (ISM-CNR)

Design of magnetic nano-architecture

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A physical property depends on the size of an object, if its size is comparable to a dimension relevant to that property. In magnetism, typical sizes are in the nanometer range, leading to a drastic change of magnetic properties at the nanoscale. In particular, magnetic nanoparticles have generated much interest because of their possible applications in high density data storage, ferrofluid technology, catalysis and biomedicine (drug delivery, contrast enhanced MRI). In addition NPs play an important role in nature, as they are commonly found in soils, sediments and rocks and may store information on the past Earth’s magnetic field as well as environmental conditions at the time of sediment deposition.
In the last two decades, great attention has been directed towards these materials, mainly discussing physical properties in term of their dependence on particle size. Recent studies have demonstrated that besides the particle size, other factors such as, chemical composition, magnetic structure, and magnetic interactions strongly influence magnetic features of nanocrystals. On the other hand, changing the physical properties without significant variation of the particle size is not trivial and for this reason few examples of comprehensive studies are present in literature. In this view, this contribution focuses on the design of magnetic nanostructured in order to govern the magnetic properties beyond the effect of particle size. Particular attention will be devoted to discuss interparticle magnetic interactions and magnetic structure (e.g. cationic distribution and spin canting) as a tool to modify magnetic properties of nanoparticle based materials.
18 aprile
ore 10
Giuseppe Tettamanzi
School of Physics and CQC2T,
University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

Precise GHz single-electron pumping with silicon quantum nano-structures

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On-demand transfer of single electrons at sub-nanosecond timescales with semiconductor nanostructures has attracted great interest in quantum technologies since the early 90s. The technique has been developed to enable a quantum realization of the ampere, fermionic quantum optics, quantum computers.
Silicon implementation promise to simplify the operation of single electronics in light of the mature single dopant and MOS technologies, offering good control of the electrostatic confinement.
The talk will introduce a model for single-dopant devices, and experimental results on MOS quantum dots. Precise single-electron transfer at temperatures as high as 4 K and frequencies in excess of 3.5 GHz has been achieved.
6 aprile
ore 11
Giovanni Borasi
Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca,
Istituto di Bioimmagini e Fisiologia Molecolare (IBFM-CNR)

Ultrasuoni focalizzati: aspetti tecnologici, dosimetria MR ed US in campo clinico ed applicazioni terapeutiche

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La prima parte del seminario prenderà in esame le più avanzate tecniche per le terapie tumorali basate su HIFU (High Intensity Focused Ultrasound) evidenziando le necessità metrologiche in ambito clinico e pre-clinico.
La seconda parte analizzerà lo stato dell'arte relativo alla dosimetria elettromagnetica e ultrasonora, connesso con i possibili sviluppi delle tecniche diagnostiche e terapeutiche.
2 febbraio
ore 11
Bruno Desruelle
Institut d'Optique d'Aquitaine

A new generation of ultra-high performance instruments based on laser-cooled atoms

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After 30 years of academic research, intensive developments are being conducted to improve the compactness and the reliability of quantum physics experimental set-ups in order to transfer such devices from laboratory-based research to an operational utilization.
This seminar will be dedicated to the presentation of the Absolute Quantum Gravimeter and the atomic clock that are being developed by Muquans. We will present in detail the principles of operation and the main features of our instruments. Their performances in terms of sensitivity, stability and accuracy and the latest results they achieved will be reviewed. We will then discuss their use to support other research activities.
Muquans is a French SME specialized in high-precision measurements based on laser-cooled atoms. Muquans is a spin-off from Institut d’Optique (LP2N) and Observatoire de Paris (LNE-SYRTE), where the core of our products has been developed for more than 15 years. After 4 years of activity, Muquans has built a highly-experienced team of 20 scientists and engineers gathering a deep expertise in various technological domains.

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